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Workers’ rights

1. Workers have the following basic rights, the content and scope of which is established by specific rules:

a) Work and freedom to choose a profession or trade.
b) Free to join a Union
c) Group negotiation
d) Adoption of measures for collective disputes.
e) Strike
f) Meeting.
g) Participation in the company

2. In a working relationship, workers have the right to:

a) Effective occupation
b) Promotion and professional training in the workplace.
c) not to be discriminated when looking for work, or once employed, by gender, marital status, age -within the limits established by the Law-, race, social condition, religious or political ideas, joining a union as well as language, within the Spanish State. Not to be discriminated for reasons of physical, psychological and sensory handicaps, as long as the person has the aptitude conditions to carry out the relevant job or employment.
d) Their physical integrity and an adequate policy for security and hygiene.
e) Respect of their privacy and due consideration of their dignity, including protection against verbal or physical abuse of a sexual nature.
f) Punctual payment of the agreed or legally established salary.
g) Individual exercise of the activities derived from their work contract.
h) all other rights deriving from the specific work contract.

Workers’ duties

Workers' basic duties are:

a) To fulfil the specific duties related to the job position, according to the rules of bona fide and diligence.

b) To observe the security measures and hygiene to be adopted.

c) To fulfil the orders and instructions of the employer under his or her normal ruling directive.

d) Not to compete with the company’s activity under the terms established in this law.

e) To contribute to the improvement of the productivity.

f) All those duties referred to in the respective employment contracts.

What are the most common social benefits in Spain?

Health insurance and salary bonuses are two of the most common social benefits. However, the natures of these incentives vary largely according to the position the employee has. Companies are increasingly aware of the benefits the company can receive by offering certain social benefits to their employees. With the aim or motivating and retaining the employees, the human resource departments of many companies design plans to include an important number of social benefits.

Types of social benefits

Some of the more popular incentives are:

Company canteen and/or meal tickets.
Reimbursement for expenses derived from the workers’ and their family’s medicines, medical and dental expenses
Child care allowances and/or education for the workers’ children
Life insurance, accident insurance etc.
Medical insurance
Share schemes
An extended period over that established by law in cases of maternity leave, marriage, death of a relative…
Private pension plan
Company equipment for staff (gyms, internet rooms, staff rooms…)
Remuneration premiums
Company transport
Financial loans
Flexibility regarding timetable
Trips organised by the company for the employees and their families.



This is the agreement between the employer and employee, by which the latter agrees to provide particular services to the employer and under the employer's supervision, for which he will receive a salary or recompense.


  • Persons of legal working age. In Spain the legal working age is 18 years.
  • Legally emancipated minors.
  • Persons older than 16 and younger than 18, who require the expressed consent of their parents or guardians if they live independently, or their authorisation if they live with them.
  • Foreigners, according to immigration law.

The employment contract may be in writing or verbal. It must be in writing:

  • When so required by a legal provision.
  • In all cases of: work placement and training contracts, part-time, permanent seasonal and relief contracts, work-at-home contracts, contracts for providing a particular job or service, integration contracts, fixed-term contracts of more than four weeks duration. Contracts made with foreign students and researchers must be in writing (as indicated in the immigration section).
  • When any of the parties requests a written contract, therefore, the employee may request that the contract be in writing, even after the employment activity in question has commenced.


In general, a employment contract should contain:

  • The details of the employee as well as the company or employer.
  • The beginning date of the employment relationship and, in the case of a temporary employment relationship, the anticipated duration.
  • The address of the company, or of the employer and the work location where the employee will regularly provide his services.
  • The category or professional group of the position that the employee will fill, or a summarised description of the position.
  • The initial base salary and bonuses, as well as the frequency of payment.
  • Working hours and schedule.
  • Vacation time and, if applicable, how this time is accrued.
  • The prior notice that the employer and employee must give in the event of contract termination.
  • The collective agreement applicable to the employment relationship, indicating the concrete identifying details.
  • In the case of foreign employees, the new Immigration regulation establishes that contracts created in this procedure, must be signed by foreigners who are not currently in, nor are residents of Spain, and must contain the basic elements of the employment contract, as well as the anticipated net salary that the employee will receive.


Establishing a probation period in a contract is optional, and if it is agreed to, it must be set in writing in the contract.
Duration of the probation period:
- the period established in collective agreements.
in the absence of an established period:
- six months for degree-holding technicians,
- two months for other employees, except in companies of less than 25 employees, in which the period is three months for non-degree holding technicians.


  • Indefinite contract. A contract with no set time limits on the services to be provided, in regards to the duration of the contract.
  • Permanent seasonal indefinite contract. To carry out permanent seasonal type work that is not repeated on certain dates, within the normal volume of the company's activities.
  • Training contract. A contract with the goal of acquiring theoretical and practical training necessary for adequate performance of a job or employment position that requires a particular level of qualification. Employees must be older than 16 and younger than 21.
  • Work placement contract. The goal of this type of contract is to facilitate acquiring professional practice, in addition to the level of studies achieved by the employee with a university degree, or mid to high level professional training or officially recognised degrees as equivalents, that prepare them for professional practice. For this type of contract, foreign workers must have their degrees officially recognised.
  • Contracts for specific works or services. For carrying out a job or providing a service within the activity of the company, the execution of which, although for a limited time, is in principle of uncertain duration.
  • Contract for eventual production circumstances. The intent of this type of contract is to address circumstantial market requirements, accumulation of work or excess orders.
  • Relief contract. This is a contract negotiated with an unemployed individual or existing employee with a fixed-term contract negotiated with the company to partially replace a company employee who is taking partial retirement.
  • Part-time contract. Intended for agreements to provide services for a number of hours per day, week, month or year, less than a full-time employee's work schedule.


What does contract termination mean?
The termination of the employment relationship between the company and the employee.

What are the reasons for terminating the employment relationship?

  • Mutual agreement of the parties.
  • The valid causes indicated in the contract.
  • Expiration of the time specified or completion of the contracted work or service.
  • Employee resignation
  • Death, severe permanent, total or absolute employee disability.
  • Employee retirement
  • On part of the employer: Death, retirement, employer disability, if employer is a physical person, or dissolution of the corporation if employer is a company.
  • Force majeure
  • Collective dismissal due to economic, technical, organisational or production causes.
  • Voluntary on part of the employee with justified cause.
  • Disciplinary termination.
  • Legally supported causes (these being: worker ineptitude, worker inability to adapt to technical modifications to his position, downsizing, etc.)


The Spanish Constitution establishes the right of the worker to receive sufficient compensation to satisfy his needs and those of his family.
Salary is the totality of a worker's economic compensation, in currency or in kind, for providing professional labour services, whether it is actual work that is paid, whatever the form of compensation, in currency or in kind, or for periods of rest computable as work. In no case shall salary in kind exceed 30% of the employee's salary payments.
Salary may be gross or net:
Net salary is the remainder after a series of deductions are made from the gross salary, and is what the employee actually receives after the corresponding deductions are made.
Deductions are the amounts deducted from the gross salary for purposes of Social Security and taxes, which is the IRPF deduction
or income tax in Spain.
The fees to Social Security are a part of the gross income of the Social Security system, and may provide for common contingencies (including illness and non-work related accidents) and unemployment and professional training.
Important: When hiring foreigners with work authorisation for fixed-term employment activities, that is seasonal or promotional, and for students, the unemployment contingency will not be included in the fee structure. Nor in the case of border workers.
The employer will be delegated the responsibility of withholding taxes and Social Security from the employee's pay.
Salary structure is established through collective bargaining, or in its absence, by individual contract and consists of:
- Base salary: the compensation fixed by unit of time or job.
- Salary bonuses: -compensation that depends of various circumstances, such as: employee's personal conditions, the work performed, the situation and results of the company. Some of these include: seniority, bonuses, distance and transportation costs, lodging,food, etc.

Employee rights regarding salary payment:

  • Receipt of salary on established date and place.
  • Receipt of salary proof (in other words, paycheque
  • That the payment period does not exceed one month.
  • Receipt of advances in exchange for work already done.
  • If payment is delayed, employee will receive 10% annual interest for the delay on the amount of salary.

In Spain, there are two annual extraordinary payments, one payable at Christmas, and the other payable in the month set by the collective agreement, or by agreement between the employer and the employees' representative. In addition, payment of the second extraordinary payment may be prorated monthly if agreed to in the collective agreement. Important: In Spain there is an Interprofessional Minimum Wage that is fixed annually by the government, for fixed as well as eventual or temporary workers, as well as for domestic service staff.


Duration: Will be that agreed upon in the collective agreements or in the employment contract.
The maximum duration shall not exceed 40 hours per week in yearly calculation. Daily working hours shall not exceed 9 hours, unless a collective agreement, or in its absence, an agreement between the company and the workers' representatives, establishes another daily schedule distribution, always respecting the minimum 12 hour rest time , between the end of one shift and start of the next.
Overtime: Each hour of work in excess of the maximum regular schedule duration, it is voluntary, except in cases of individual or collective agreements. Overtime hours will be paid economically or  compensated with time off according to individual or collective agreement. The maximum number of annual overtime hours allowable for a worker is 80 hours per year.



It is an agreement signed by the workers' representatives and the employers to set working and productivity conditions. It may regulate various issues, such as:

  • Economic: wages, indirect compensation, etc.
  • Daily, weekly, and annual work shifts and vacations, professional categories, contract duration, performance  requirements ...
  • Union: company committees, staff delegates
  • Employment conditions
  • Hazard prevention
  • Relations between the workers and their representatives and the employer or employer associations.



Suspension of work carried out collectively
 and by agreement of the workers. The exercise of the right to strike does not terminate the employment relationship, however, during the strike the  contract is considered suspended, and the employee will not have the right to a salary, and will be in a status of special registration with Social Security. When authorised to work, foreigners may also exercise the right
to strike. Similarly, and in regards to freedom of union association, in Spain only those foreign workers who reside in Spain on a regular basis will have the right to freely associate or join a professional organisation in the same conditions as Spanish workers.


Regarding contributive allowances, in Spain the Social Security System  covers all Spaniards residing in Spain and foreigners residing or otherwise legally in Spain, regardless of sex, civil status and profession, as long as in both cases, work activities are carried out in national territory, and they are:
- Dependent employees
- Self-employed or autonomous workers
- Member workers of Associated Work Cooperatives
- Students
- Public, civil and military officials
Regarding non-contributive allowances, the Social Security system covers all Spaniards  residing in national territory; Latin Americans, Portuguese,  Brazilians, Andorrans and Philippinos, as well as nationals of other countries according to Treaties, Agreements or Bilateral Accords.

Make up of the Social Security System:

  • General plan
  • Special plans:
    - Agricultural
    - Ocean workers
    - Autonomous workers
    - Domestic employees
    - Coal miners
    - Students (School Insurance)
    - Civil servants

Affiliation and fees:

All workers must register with Social Security.
Foreign workers must register once they obtain the authorisation for residency and employment, because if when the foreigner applies for a foreign identity card (remembering that this must be done within one month of entering Spain), or after one month has passed since entering Spain, there is no record that the worker who was initially authorised for residency and employment, has registered with Social Security, the corresponding authority may decide to terminate  the previously granted authorisation.
First, the worker should apply for a Social Security number and  later, the employer is obligated to register the worker before hiring him.
If the employer does not fulfil his obligation, the workers can directly request affiliation and initial registration at the General Security of the Social Security This organism can also proceed to  affiliation by trade.

This obligation begins from the moment that employment activity initiates  and lasts for the duration of the employment.
What should be paid: Employees and employers for whom they work, except for the cases of work accidents and work-related illnesses, and salary guarantee fund.


Non-EU foreigners may register with Public Employment Services, through employment demand, if they fulfil the following requirements:
- If they have residency and employment authorisation valid for more than three months.
- If they are included in exceptions for obtaining  work authorisation. - Persons with residency authorisation for unusual circumstances - Refugees and family members who have been recognised as a family group for residency. - If they have requested a renewal of their work authorisation.


Also known as domestic service, this refers to an employment relationship agreed to by a head of household, who is the employer, with persons who, dependent and paid by the former, provide paid services in the family home, considered domestic tasks.

Important: This does not include work done for reasons of friendship, family, neighbourhood, in  exchange for food, lodging or compensation for expenses.

The characteristics of this type of contract are:
- A 15-day trial period is implicit.
- Minimum payment, minimum total interprofessional salary or proportional, depending on whether it is a full or part time shift. A maximum of 45% of the salary can be  deducted for room and board or other compensations.
- Rights to two extraordinary payments per year, in the amount  equal to a minimum of 15 natural days of salary in cash.
- Maximum monthly shift of 40 hours.
- Does not need to be done via Public Employment Services.
- Does not need to be in writing, verbal is sufficient, in which case the duration is assumed to be one year.

Special Social Security Plan for Domestic Employees

These include: workers older than 16 who provide exclusively domestic services for one or more heads of household.

Who pays?

If the domestic employee provides services to a single employer and the  duration is greater than half the regular shift: it is the head of household's responsibility and the amount he pays will be deducted from the worker's wages.
If the domestic employee provides services partially or part time, to one or more heads of household, both the employer and employee fees will be the sole responsibility of the employee.


This is an activity with the objective of improving working conditions to elevate the level of worker health protections and safety.
The employer must guarantee the health and safety of the workers in his service in all aspects relating to the work, therefore the employer should:
- Create an occupational hazard prevention plan
- Assess risks
- Plan and apply preventive activity
For their part, the workers have a series of rights and obligations derived from the right that they have to effective protection.
- Periodic monitoring of their state of health, in regards to the risks inherent to the job.
- Specific protective measures when, due to their own  personal characteristics or known biological state or physical, psychiatric or sensory  handicap, make them especially sensitive to certain work-related risks.


- Use machines, tools, hazardous substances, equipment and any other work method appropriately.
- Cooperate with the employer so that he may guarantee work conditions are safe, and do not pose risks to the safety and health of the workers.

More information:


List of foreign's offices by provinces:

Instituto de Empleo. Servicio Público de Empleo Estatal - INEM

National Employment Service with information on occupational training




The authorization of residence and work is the one that authorizes to be employed at Spain, if the foreigner has more than 16 years old.

The initial authorization has the duration of one year and it will be able to limit to a geographical area and sector of activity determined.


The main mechanisms are: - The one known as General Regime
- The “quota” 
- The temporary residence and work at the expense of other person, of specific duration.


Which are the requirements to obtain an authorization of temporary residence and work at the expense of another resident?

- Those contracts that the national situation of employment allows. In order that it is possible to proceed with the authorization to reside and to work it is necessary that the occupation for the one that requests authorization has been qualified like of difficult coverage by the Public Service of Employment previous consultation of the Labour Tripartite Commission of Immigration, of which belong the unions. Also it will be considered that the national situation of employment allows the contracting in the occupations not qualified like of difficult coverage, when the employer credits the difficulty of contracting that tries to cover, by means of the management of the offer of employment concluded with negative result.

- To guarantee to the worker a continued activity during the time of force of the authorization.

- Inscription of the company in the system of Social Security and to satisfy its tax debts of the Social Security.

- The conditions of the offer of employment must adjust to the established ones for the regulation for same activity, category and locality.

 - To have the necessary qualifications, in its case, authorized, for the performance of the profession.

 - That the worker has not penal precedents in Spain and in the previous countries of residence for existing crimes in the Spanish Law.

 - That the worker is not irregularly in Spain. 

Important: Therefore, to obtain a permit of residence and work in Spain is necessary to have an offer of employment, which the situation of employment it allows, and that the worker is not in irregular situation in Spain. 

The national situation of employment will not be taken in mind:

 - Coverage of confidence places.

 - For the spouse or son of resident in Spain with a renewed authorization, not for the son of nationalized Spanish or community, if they have one year residing legally in Spain, and to the son do not be of application the community regime.

- Those who claim the renovation of a previous authorization.

For the workers necessary for the assembly for renovation of an installation or productive equipments.

 - Those who had had the refugee's condition during the year following to the cessation of the application of the Convention of Geneva of 1951.

 - Those recognized like stateless and those that had lost this condition during the year following to the completion of this statute.

 - Those that they have to his position ascendant or descendants from Spanish nationality.

 - The born and resident foreigners in Spain.

 - The children and grandsons of Spanish of origin.

 - The foreign of more than 16 years old with residence permit that have the guardianship of an organization of protection of minors, for activities that favor their social integration, and credited the impossibility of return with their family or to the country of origin. - The foreigners who obtain an authorization of residence by exceptional circumstances. (Art. 31,3 the 14/2004)

 - Those that have been titular of pemits of work for season activities, during four years natural, and have returned to their country.

For the nationals of States with which the suppression of this requirement has been signed, and the foreigners enlisted in Spanish ships.

Who must do the request of residence authorization and work?

The employer or industralist who tries to contract the foreign worker, in the competent organ of the province where is going to exert the activity that is in the Offices of foreigners, the Area of Work of the Delegations or the Subdelegations of the Government of the province.

Visa: In the term of a month from the notification to the employer or industralist, the worker will have to ask for personally the visa in the diplomatic mission or consular office in whose demarcation resides, or another authorized one. It can be allowed to present the visa by means of legally credited representative if specially onerous founded reasons that exist they prevent the displacement of the applicant, like the distance of the mission or office, difficulties of transport that make the trip or credited reasons of disease or physical training conditions that make difficult their mobility sensibly, or when it is a minor (just as in the other cases of visa request).

The visa request will be accompanied by:

- Ordinary passport or title of trip, valid in Spain, with a minimum use of four months.

- Criminal antecedents sent by the authorities of origin or the countries in which it has resided five years in the last, in which sentences by existing crimes in the Spanish ordering do not have to consist.

- Medical Certificate

- Copy of the residence permit and conditional work.

Notified the concession of the visa, the worker will have to gather it in the term of a month from the notification, and will have to enter Spain during the use of the visa that will not be superior to three months. From the legal entrance in Spain, the worker will be able to begin his activity and he will take place his affiliation, discharge and later quotation in the Social Security. In the term of a month from the entrance, the foreigner will ask for the identity card of foreigner which will have the same term of validity that the temporary authorization of residence and will be withdraw by the foreigner.

If certainty did not exist of which the authorized worker initially to reside and to work in Spain has been affiliated and/or given of discharge in the Social Security at the moment of the request of the identity card of foreigner, or passed a month from the entrance in Spain, the extinction of the authorization will be able to be solved.

The visa of residence and work will incorporate the initial authorization of residence and work by other people's account and the use of this one will begin from the entrance in Spain, which will consist in the passport or title of trip.

The refusal of the authorization of residence and work by other people's account has to be motivated and will express the resources that against the same, the foreign can interpose and the organ and the term in which there are to interpose.

The refusal causes are:

- If criminal antecedents of the worker in Spain or its previous countries of residence by existing crimes in the Spanish ordering consist. - When it demands the National Situation of Employ.

- When the conditions of the contract or supply of employ were inferior to the established ones by the effective norm for the same activity, professional category and locality.

- If in the 12 months immediately previous to the date of request, the company has amortized the jobs that it tries to cover by inadmissible or null dismissal or cause mentioned in the article 50, 51 and 52.c) of the Statute of the Workers.

 - If the employer has been sanctioned in the last 12 months by infraction described like very serious in the Law of Alienage, or by serious or very serious infractions in the matter of Alienage described in this way in the Law as Infractions and Sanctions in the social order.

 - If the employer does not guarantee to the worker an activity continued during the use of the authorization, or he does not credit economic means, material and personal of which he arranges to his enterprise project and to face the obligations of the work contract.

 - If false documents have appeared or formulated inexact allegations, and mediates bad faith.

 - If the worker has not special degree for the exercise of the profession or the homologation or the demanded college registration.

 - If unfavorable previous governmental report consists.

 - If predicted cause of inadmisión to proceeding consists legally that had not been appreciated at the moment of the reception of the request.

 - If the industralist has been condemned by firm sentence by crimes against the rights of the workers or foreign citizens, unless the criminal antecedents had been cancelled.   

Renovation of the residence authorization and work:


When can you ask for the renovation? 60 days natural previous to the date of expiration of the force of the authorization, or within the three later months to the date in which the use of the previous one had finalized. In both cases, the presentation of the request prorogues the validity of the previous authorization until the resolution of the renovation procedure.

The requeriments that they have to credit for the corresponding renovation:

- Continuity in the labor relation that gave place to the concession of the authorization whose renovation is tried.

- The habitual accomplishment of the activity for which the authorization was granted during a minimum of six months per year and:

  • It has subscribed a contract with a new agreed employer with the characteristics of his authorization to work, and appears in situation of assimilated discharge or to the discharge at the moment for asking for the renovation.
  • Or the foreign has a new supply of work with the requirements to the concession of an initial authorization of residence and work.

 - If the period of activity is to the minimum, of three months per year, that the labor relation has been interrupted by unforeseen reasons; or that the person has looked for employ actively, participating in actions that are determined by the public service of employ, or in programs of socia labour insertion of the public or private organizations that have public subsidies, or that at the moment for asking for the renovation it has a contract of work in vigor.

Finally, also the renovation corresponds:

 - When by the competent authority, a contributing benefit by unemployment had been granted, by the time of duration of this benefit.

 - When the person is beneficiary of a welfare economic benefit of governmental function destined to obtain his social or labor insertion during the term of duration of the same one.

 Important: The renovation is granted during a period of 2 years whenever it does not correspond a permanent authorization and it will allows the exercise of any activity in any place of the national territory. In a term of a month from the notification of the favorable resolution, the identity card of foreigner will be asked for, and passed the term to solve on a request of renovation of residence authorization and work by other people's account, this one will be understood considered.

Also it is necessary to bear in mind that the affiliation to the Security Social, in situation of discharge or assimilated to the discharge is important for the renovation of the residence and work authorization. 

 I have a temporary residence permit. Can I work?

No. Temporary residence only allows you to reside in Spain, it does not authorise you to work. To work in Spain you must apply for residence and work permit. Authorisation of temporary residence is granted if you want to come to Spain with no intention of working. You will have to apply for the visa at the Spanish consulate in your country of origin. The visa includes the initial residence permit that will enter in force when you enter Spain. The initial temporary residence permit will be valid for one year.

More information:


List of foreign´s offices by provinces:



Instituto de Empleo. Servicio Público de Empleo Estatal - INEM

National Employment Service with information on occupational training




Some companies provide an application form, but the most common practice is to hand in a Curriculum Vitae along with a cover letter. This can be done as a reply to a job offer or newspaper advertisement and also handing in your CV on the spot.

Cover letter.

The cover letter summarizes the intentions, qualifications and availability to a possible employer in a brief but appealing way. It is the applicant’s first opportunity to give a good impression. A personalised letter implies that the applicant is serious in the job searching. The CV can give details of dates, previous work and education, but the cover letter should stimulate the reader to dedicate more time to this applicant when he or she is reviewing hundreds of thousands of candidates for a job vacancy.

Curriculum Vitae:

There are no hard and fast rules for the CV layout, but here are a few tips. It must be structured, clear and concise. It must be typed. Two pages maximum, in A4 format. It is not necessary to include a photograph, but it may be convenient for some job offers . It should not be accompanied by copies of degrees and certificates, unless this is requested, those may be provided during the course of the interview. Language: direct, it is advisable to use simple sentences, to avoid acronyms and abbreviations.

- Personal details: Name, nationality, full address, telephone number (indicating international area code), e-mail, etc…
Training: It should include qualifications and complementary courses. Separate sections for foreign languages and computer skills are usually included.
- Experience: It may be presented in a chronological or reverse chronological format as well as by professional fields. Details which should be mentioned include the company, position, dates and tasks involved.
- Other details: This optional and open section is used to introduce any other information which may be useful for the position, for example if the applicant has a driving licence, availability to travel, etc.

You can find a European curriculum vitae model by clicking in the following link:




PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT SERVICES: Both national (INEM) and regional (autonomous communities) employment services have a network of employment offices with services available for all workers. People over 16 years of age can sign up in the employment services with their valid identity card or passport provided they have a postal address. To access professions which require certain qualifications, evidence of the requirement for this profession in Spain should be provided.

Services provided: Access to job offers, career guidance, actions for employment promotion, vocational training, processing of unemployment benefit allowance.
The address of the Employment offices can be found in the Telephone Directory or through the INEM website which provides links to the public employment services in the Autonomous communities. Some of them provide information on job offers on their website.


Non-EU foreigners may register with Public Employment Services, through employment demand, if they fulfil the following requirements:
- If they have residency and employment authorisation valid for more than three months.
- If they are included in exceptions for obtaining  work authorisation.
- Persons with residency authorisation for unusual circumstances
- Refugees and family members who have been recognised as a family group for residency.
- If they have requested a renewal of their work authorisation.

More information:

www.inem.es/ - 14k –




How to look for a job in Spain

The traditional means such as the newspaper, the internet, and recruitment companies are less common in Spain than in other countries. Many jobs are obtained through personal relationships and contacts.

Very often, instead of being publicly announced, the vacancies are occupied by people with contacts inside the company. Our advice is to make the most of any possible contact one may have, such as friends, colleagues or classmates. Even the most fortuitous encounters may lead to a possible job position. Persistence and self- confidence are two essential elements for a successful job search.

PRIVATE RECRUITMENT AGENCIES AND COLLABORATING ENTITIES In the current management model in some of the public employment services in Spain there are organisations which collaborate with the public services by offering the same services to the workers free of charge. These organisations may provide their services to all types of workers or to specific job seekers (university students, people with disabilities, workers of a specific activity sector). You will get information about these organisations at your local employment office. 

RECRUITMENT COMPANIES (TEMPORARY WORK): Unlike other intermediaries in the job market, the R.C. hire the workers directly and later pass them on to the User Company by means of a release of staff contract, delegating them the control of the work to be done. Especially useful for temporary work search.

MEDIA: All the Spanish newspapers, national, regional and provincial, have a daily job offer section but it is in the Sunday editions where most job offers are published. As regards television, the programme "Aquí hay trabajo" which is on at 9.30 Monday to Friday on Channel 2 (RTVE) is well-known.

Internet – Company Websites: It is increasingly common for companies to have a website where they promote themselves and have a Human Resource section. Check their web pages and look for a link called “Work for us” or “Employment”.

Internet – Job Websites: These websites show job offers classified by activity sector and by provinces, with the description of the position, date of entry and contact address and telephone number of the job advertiser. The most popular websites are:







APPLYING BY ONESELF: Filling in application forms provided by the companies as well as sending the curriculum vitae together with a cover letter are common practices in Spain.
PERSONAL CONTACTS: Contacts and personal relationships are very useful when looking for a job. If you have friends or relatives in Spain, it is advisable to mention that you are seeking employment, as many vacancies are filled through contacts and references of this type.



As an essential part of the education reforms, the reorganisation of vocational education creates a link between school and professional life. The Consejo General de Formación Profesional (General Council for Vocational Education) was founded as a tripartite and participating organ of the employers and union organisations as well as of public administration. It provides counselling to the government on all aspects of vocational training in schools or companies and is under the control of the Ministry of Work and Social Affairs. Also the Instituto Nacional de las Cualificaciones (National Institute for Qualifications) was founded in 1999 as a technical instrument with independent character to support the Consejo General de Formación Profesional.
Actually vocational education in Spain is realised with three systems:

  • initial/ regulated: determined by the educational authorities;
  • occupational: determined by the labour authorities, and
  • continuing: organised by the employers, trade unions and other social agencies.

More information:

» Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia

Official gateway to vocational training

» Instituto Nacional de las Cualificaciones

National Institute of Cualifications with detailed information on the national system of qualifications and vocational training

» Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia - Orient@

Portal for information and vocational guidance

» Instituto de Empleo. Servicio Público de Empleo Estatal - INEM

National Employment Service with information on occupational training

» Eurybase

Information database on education systems in Europe


European Union resource for vocational training issues, mobility, funding





Oficial Web of the Ministry of Work, where you could find all the information about employ, labour guide, general information, Secretary of Immigration, Secretary of Social Security, etc.



List of foreign's offices by provinces:


National Trade Unions

Management organizations



www.ucmta.org     Cooperative of associated work in Madrid

www.CEPES.es    Spanish Management Confederation of Social Economy

Labour Health

http://www.ccoo.es/istas/index.html Link with the web of resources in the net of ISTAS

www.ECONORM.com (Center of Resources of Prevention of Labour risks and Environment)

http://es.osha.eu.int       Spanish Net of Security and Health in Work